Epilepsy Fredericton - The term epilepsy is derived from the Ancient Greek word that translates to "seizure." It is a common neurological disorder which is defined by seizures. These seizures are indications or transient symptoms, indications of abnormal, excessive or hyper-synchronous neuronal activity within the brain. Epilepsy usually happens in young children or those individuals who are over the age of 65, however, it can happen at whichever time. All over the world, over 50 million people have epilepsy. Roughly 2 out of every 3 cases are discovered in developing countries. Epileptic seizures could even result as a consequence of brain surgery and patients recovering from such surgical procedure may experience them.
The condition of epilepsy is normally controlled with medication, although it is not treated in this manner. Even on the best medications, more than 30% of patients with epilepsy do not have seizure control. In several situations, an operation could be considered difficult. In many cases, not all epilepsy syndromes are considered permanent. Some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood.
The disorder of epilepsy must not be just considered one single disorder. However, it must be noted as a syndrome with variously divergent symptoms which involve episodic abnormal electrical activity within the brain. Seizure kinds are organized firstly based on whether the source of the seizure is localized as in partial or focal onset seizures or whether they are more distributed or generalized seizures.
On to the extend in which area of consciousness is affected, partial seizures are further divided. If it is unaffected for instance, then it is considered a simple partial seizure. Otherwise, it is referred to as a complex partial or complex psychomotor seizure. Secondary generalization is the term when a partial seizure may spread within the brain. Generalized seizures include loss of consciousness and are divided according to the effect on the body. These consist of atonic, tonic clonic or grand mal, myoclonic, tonic or clonic or petit mal seizures.
At times children can exhibit certain behaviours which are easily mistaken for epileptic seizures which are not in fact caused by epilepsy. These behaviours include: inattentive staring, benign shudders, self gratification behaviours like head banging, nodding and rocking, conversion disorder, that is flailing and jerking of the head normally in response to extreme personal stress as such will incur in a case of physical abuse. Conversion disorder can be distinguished from epilepsy as the episodes do not include self-injury, incontinence or occur during sleep.
Just as there are types of seizures, there are lots of different types of epilepsy syndromes. The classifications comprise data regarding the patient and about the episodes, in addition to the seizure type. It even comprises clinical features and expected causes like behaviour during the seizure.
There are more than 40 various kinds of epilepsy comprising: frontal lobe epilepsy, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, LennoxGastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, status epilepticus, limbic epilepsy, Rett syndrome, abdominal epilepsy, temporal lobe epilepsy, limbic epilepsy, Jacksonian seizure disorder, Lafora disease and photosensitive epilepsy, amongst others.
Each type of epilepsy will have its own EEG findings, usual age of onset, unique combination of seizure type, own types of prognosis and treatment. The classification which is most common divides epilepsy syndromes by distribution of seizures and by location. This is determined by how the seizures appear, by EEG and by cause. Syndromes are divided into localization-related epilepsies, epilepsies of unknown localization and generalized epilepsies.
Often localization-related epilepsies are referred to as partial or focal epilepsies. These types arise from an epileptic focus, a tiny portion of the brain which serves as the irritant driving the epileptic response. In contrast, generalized epilepsies happen from numerous independent foci and are referred to as multifocal epilepsies. These could include epileptic circuits that affect the whole brain. At this time it has not been determined whether epilepsies of unknown localization happen from a part of the brain or from more widespread circuits.
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